Developments in Equal Pay Litigation

TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
EQUAL PAY LEGISLATION 1
A. The Federal Equal Pay Act And Title VII 1
B. State Equal Pay Legislation 2
C. State And Local Pay Equity Initiatives 3
1. State And Local Salary History Bans 3
2. State And Local Pay Transparency Initiatives 5
CASE LAW DEVELOPMENTS IN 2020 AND EARLY 2021 7
A. Proving The Prima Facie Case 7
1. Establishing A Wage Disparity 7
2. Showing That Work Is “Equal” Or “Substantially Similar” 12
B. Significant Class And Collective Action Decisions 18
1. Recent Cases Involving Collective Action Certification 18
2. Recent Cases Involving Class Action Certification 22
C. Disproving Discrimination: Employers’ Affirmative Defenses 24
1. Proving A Factor Other Than Sex 25
2. The Use Of Salary History As A Legitimate Factor Other Than Sex 28
3. Other Affirmative Defenses 32
4. Pretext 33
D. Other Important Substantive Decisions Impacting Pay Equity Litigation 36
1. Retaliation Claims: Establishing The Causal Link 36
2. Arbitration Agreements 38
3. Proving An “Establishment” 42
4. Who Is An “Employer” Under The EPA? 43
5. Statute Of Limitations And Willfulness Issues 46
DEVELOPMENTS IN EEOC ENFORCEMENT OF EQUAL PAY ACT CLAIMS 47

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